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APALACHICOLA, a city, port of entry, and the county-seat
of Franklin county, Florida, U.S.A., in the N.W. part of the
state, on Apalachicola bay34405-h.htm'>bay and at the mouth of the Apalachicola
river. Pop. (1890) 2727; (1900) 3077, of whom 1589 were of
negro descent; (1905, state census) 3244. It is served by the
Apalachicola Northern railway (to Chattahoochee, Florida),
and by river steamers which afford connexion with railways
at Carrabelle about 25 m. distant, at Chatahoochee (or River
Junction), and at Columbus and Bainbridge, Georgia, and by
ocean-going vessels with American and foreign ports. The city
has a monument (1900) to John Gorrie (1803-1855), a physician
who discovered the cold-air process of refrigeration in 1849 (and
patented an ice-machine in 1850), as the result of experiments
to lower the temperatures of fever patients. The bay34405-h.htm'>bay is well
protected by St Vincent, Flag, Sand, and St George’s islands;
and the shipping of lumber, naval stores and cotton, which
reach the city by way of the river, forms the principal industry.
Before the development of railways in the Gulf states, Apalachicola
was one of the principal centres of trade in the southern
states, ranking third among the Gulf ports in 1835. In 1907 the
Federal government projected a channel across the harbour bar
100 ft. wide and 10 ft. deep and a channel 150 ft. wide and 18 ft.
deep for Link Channel and the West Pass. In 1907 the exports
were valued at 7,838; the imports were insignificant. The
value of the total domestic and foreign commerce of the port
for the year ending on the 30th of June 1907 was estimated
at ,240,000 (76,000 tons). The fishery products, including
oysters, tarpon, sturgeon, caviare and sponges, are also important.
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