ARCHIMEDES, SCREW OF, a machine for raising water,
said to have been invented by Archimedes, for the purpose of
removing water from the hold of a large ship that had been
built by KingHiero II. of Syracuse. It consists of a water-tight
cylinder, enclosing a chamber walled off by spiral divisions
running from end to end, inclined to the horizon, with its lower
open end placed in the water to be raised. The water, while
occupying the lowest portion in each successive division of the
spiral chamber, is lifted mechanically by the turning of the
machine. Other forms have the spiral revolving free in a fixed
cylinder, or consist simply of a tube wound spirally about a
cylindrical axis. The same principle is sometimes used in
machines for handling wheat, &c. (see Conveyors).
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