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ARTEMISIA, daughter of Lygdamis, was queen of Halicarnassus
and Cos about 480 B.C. Being a dependent of Persia,
she took part in person in the expedition of Xerxes against the
Greeks, and fitted out five ships, with which she distinguished
herself in the sea-fight near Salamis (480). When closely
pursued by the Athenians she escaped by the stratagem of
attacking one of the Persian vessels, whereupon the Athenians
concluded that she was an ally, and gave up the pursuit (Herod.
vii. 99, viii. 68). After the battle Xerxes declared that the
men had fought like women, and the women like men. By her
advice he did not risk another battle, but at once retired from
Greece. She is said to have loved a young man named Dardanus,
of Abydos, and, enraged at his neglect of her, to have put out his
eyes while he was asleep. The gods, as a punishment for this,
ordered her, by an oracle, to take the famous but rather mythical
lover’s leap from the Leucadian promontory (Photius, Cod. 153a).
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