THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION 1911

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AUSSIG (Czech Oustí nad Labem), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 68 m. N. of Prague by rail. Pop. (1900) 37,255, mostly German. It is situated in a mountainous district, at the confluence of the Biela and the Elbe, and, besides being an active river port, is an important junction of the northern Bohemian railways. Aussig has important industries in chemicals, textiles, glass and boat-building, and carries on an active trade in coal from the neighbouring mines, stone and stoneware, corn, fruit and wood. It was the birthplace of the painter, Raphael Mengs (1728-1779). Aussig is mentioned as a trading centre as early as 993. It was made a city by Ottokar II. in the latter part of the 13th century. In 1423 it was pledged by King Sigismund to the elector Frederick of Meissen, who occupied it with a Saxon garrison. In 1426 it was besieged by the Hussites, who on the 16th of June, though only 25,000 strong, defeated a German army of 70,000, which had been sent to its relief, with great slaughter. The town was stormed and sacked next day. After lying waste for three years, it was rebuilt in 1429. It suffered much during the Thirty Years’ and Seven Years’ Wars, and in 1830 it had only 1400 inhabitants. Not far from Aussig is the village of Kulm, where, on the 29th and 30th of August 1813, a battle took place between the French under Vandamme and an allied army of Austrians, Prussians and Russians. The French were defeated, and Vandamme surrendered with his army of 10,000 men.
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