THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION 1911

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KIND (O.E. ge-cynde, from the same root as is seen in “kin,” supra), a word in origin meaning birth, nature, or as an adjective, natural. From the application of the term to the natural disposition or characteristic which marks the class to which an object belongs, the general and most common meaning of “class,” genus or species easily develops; that of race, natural order or group, is particularly seen in such expressions as “mankind.” The phrase “payment in kind,” i.e. in goods or produce as distinguished from money, is used as equivalent to the Latin in specie; in ecclesiastical usage “communion in both kinds” or “in one kind” refers to the elements of bread and wine (Lat. species) in the Eucharist. The present main sense of the adjective “kind,” i.e. gentle, friendly, benevolent, has developed from the meaning “born,” “natural,” through “of good birth, disposition or nature,” “naturally well-disposed.”
Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage. Sections in Greek will yield a transliteration when the pointer is moved over them, and words using diacritic characters in the Latin Extended Additional block, which may not display in some fonts or browsers, will display an unaccented version.

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